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Butmir is the oldest and best-known late Stone Age archaeological site in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was discovered in 1893 and represents the entire cultural group of the late Neolithic in central Bosnia as “the Butmir culture” (Butmir gruppe, Butmir group). The original spiritual culture of its inhabitants places archaeology of Bosnia and Herzegovina on a par with archaeology in Europe .
On the basis of absolute chronology, the assumption is that the settlement was inhabited from 5500 to 4500 BC.

The basis of the prehistoric economy of Butmir was agriculture and animal husbandry .Hunting and fishing ,as well as gathering wild plant foods ,were still an important part of daily life, however. Every activity associated with food processing, using well established processes, was imbued with religious content.
The most pronounced manifestation of the religious beliefs of agricultural communities world-wide is fertility cult. Figurines, predominantly female, and decorative designs on pottery vessels, are clear evidence of the presence of this cult in Butmir. During the time of the classic Butmir culture (Butmir II ), a specific artistic style evolved as regards the shape and decoration of pottery vessels, in which spiral and banded designs are particularly distinctive, while sculpting of figurines reached a high level of artistry. Here, at a particular point in time, in evolution of culture, a nexus of powerful aesthetic and religious sentiment reveal itself.